This study seeks to examine gender gaps and disability issues in education in Indonesia, and to suggest policy actions as well as future analytical and operational work to address these differences. Field visits were conducted to uncover drivers of gender differences, as well as issues of social inclusion, and to explore policy approaches to improve learning outcomes and educational achievement for all children. Secondary data analysis shows that Indonesia has demonstrated great progress on gender parity in education; however, the national averages mask important variations at the subnational level, including variations of significant male and female disadvantage between and within provinces. Women are still underrepresented in school and government leadership positions, as well as the workforce overall. Despite women making up the majority of the teaching workforce, men dominate the management and leadership roles in schools. The study also reveals significant challenges and offers policy recommendations to ensure inclusivity in education for children with disabilities.