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Vocational education and training in Slovakia
Publication Date: 14 Sep 2016
Source: Other sources
The Slovak economy is largely driven by manufacturing and could benefit from more diversification to make it less sensitive to economic shocks, encouraging innovation. Vocational education and training (VET) has traditionally played a strong role, responsible for around two-thirds of graduates at upper secondary level. But qualifications do not always match labour market needs. A ‘dual’ VET scheme was introduced in 2015/16 as one way to address mismatch. First results show greater involvement of employers in VET: it is now in their interest to attract learners and to deliver job-relevant training. The government also intends to promote VET at higher levels to make it more attractive. This publication aims to contribute to better understanding of VET in Slovakia, providing an insight into its main features and highlighting recent VET policy developments.
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A routine transition? Causes and consequences of the changing content of jobs in Central and Eastern Europe
Publication Date: 13 Jul 2016
Source: Academic institutions, Other sources
This paper studies the shift from manual to cognitive work in 10 economies of Central and Eastern Europe. It highlights the growth in the non-routine cognitive component of jobs, but pay particular attention to the increase in routine cognitive tasks, a trend that is pronounced in the CEE economies but absent in the most advanced economies. It shows that workforce upgrading and structural change were the main factors behind the increase in all cognitive tasks, but that the growth in routine cognitive tasks is partly attributable to rising shares of routine-intensive occupations. It identifies two groups of workers whose jobs depend most on performing routine cognitive tasks: middle-skilled men in the manufacturing sectors and middle-skilled women in the service sectors, who jointly represent 33% of workers in CEE. It finds that robust employment and wage growth among routine cognitive workers has so far prevented job polarisation in CEE. However, the relative prices of routine cognitive tasks are already higher than those of other tasks. If the prices of routine cognitive tasks rise further while technological progress continues, routine intensive employment may gradually decline. It concludes with policy implications of the findings.
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A skills beyond school review of the Slovak Republic
Publication Date: 25 Feb 2016
Source: International organizations
Vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. How can employers and unions be engaged? How can work-based learning be used? How can teachers and trainers be effectively prepared? How should postsecondary programmes be structured? This country report looks at these and other questions and summarises the main features of the VET (Vocational Education and Training) system in the Slovak Republic setting out an assessment of its particular strengths and challenges.

DOI : 10.1787/9789264233348-en
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Monitoring ECVET implementation strategies in Europe in 2013
Publication Date: 18 Mar 2014
Source: Other sources
The aim of the European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET) is to allow individuals to gain a full vocational education and training (VET) qualification, or to update/upgrade their VET qualifications in a flexible way, by use of credits.

ECVET requires qualifications to be described in terms of learning outcomes that will be then defined as units that might translate into credits. Learning outcomes recognised in form of credits may be transferred between education and training institutions, whether in the same country or abroad, and accumulated towards achieving a full or a partial qualification. If the VET system allows it, learning acquired in non-formal and informal settings may be assessed and validated as credits to be used for transfer and accumulation purposes. In this context, ECVET is more likely to reach its full potential if linked to the European qualifications framework (EQF)/national qualifications framework (NQF) developments that support the description of qualifications in terms of learning outcomes, as well as with national arrangements and practices for validating non-formal and informal learning.

This report covers ECVET developments in 38 countries and regions up to September 2013; it is the fourth since 2010, when Cedefop started its regular ECVET analysis in relation to national VET reforms. The deadlines of the ECVET recommendation set 2013 as the year for ECVET’s gradual application to VET qualifications at all levels of the EQF, following more than three years of testing and development.