Understanding the Dynamics of Labor Income Inequality in Latin America
Publication Date: 18 Nov 2016
Source: Other sources
Since the early 2000s, after a long period of wide and persistent gaps, Latin America has experienced a steady decline in income inequality. This paper presents evidence of a trend reversal in labor income inequality, which is considered the main factor behind such a decline in income inequality across the region. The analysis shows that, while labor income inequality increased during the 1990s, with heterogeneous experiences across countries, it fell in a synchronized way across countries beginning in the early 2000s. This systematic decline was supported by an expansion in real hourly earnings among the bottom of the wage distribution and, to a lesser extent, the middle part of the earnings distribution, thus reducing upper and lower tail inequality. This trend reversal is explained by a lower dispersion of earnings among workers with observable different attributes and by a much less extensive dispersion of residual labor inequality. Regarding the earnings differentials among workers with observable different attributes, the analysis concludes that the decline in labor inequality in Latin America has been closely associated with a reduction in the college/primary education premium and in the urban-rural earnings gap, coupled with a steady drop in the high school/primary education premium, which accelerated markedly since the 2000s, as well as a reduction in the experience premium across all age groups.
Measuring the economic gain of investing in girls: The girl effect dividend
Publication Date: 05 May 2016
Source: International organizations
This paper explores the linkages between investing in girls and potential increases in national income by examining three widely prevalent aspects of adolescent girls’ lives: early school dropout, teenage pregnancy and joblessness. The countries included in the analysis are: Bangladesh, Brazil, Burundi, China, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Paraguay, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda.
Paraguay: Public employment services in Latin America and the Caribbean
Publication Date: 16 Dec 2015
Source: ILO
In Paraguay informal employment and its consequences are more important labour market issues than unemployment per se. The level of informal employment remains high, at 65.8 per cent of total employment in non-agricultural sectors in 2013; for comparison, the regional average registered in 2012 was 47.7 per cent (ILO, 2013). Within that context, this note provides an overview of the main trends and innovations of the Public Employment Services in Paraguay.
The integration of ICT into education and training systems in Africa
Publication Date: 19 Jun 2015
Source: Other sources
Today, interest in the potential of ICTs to transform learning experiences and outcomes in Africa usually translates into technological deployment. In most of the cases, it is the result of political will, while development and implementation of ICT integration in education and training policies are usually entrusted to technology experts. This report presents some studies based on existing research and analytical work. Each study provides a very brief background and macro-level national information to allow readers to understand the challenges faced by the country’s education system.

The studies address the following issues: ICT integration policy development and implementation; teachers’ training; availability and development of relevant e-contents; usage of ICT administration and management; and how ICT contributes to providing learning opportunities to marginalized groups (including girls, rural, handicapped, etc.). They describe how these issues have been addressed and lessons learned, including the enabling environment and factors that constrain or promote ICT integration initiatives.