Skills mismatch problems in the labour market have been widely recognized by both current literature and policymakers. Skills mismatch indicators inform policies to improve the matching between labour demand and labour supply, making labour markets more efficient and reducing the wage penalties due to over-education or other types of mismatches. The skills mismatch indicators have been measured, so far, only for a limited number of the European Training Foundation (ETF) partner countries and they are not always comparable. This report provides an update and an extension of the work which has already been done to measure skills mismatch in ETF partner countries. The analysis following the choice and the construction of skills mismatch indicators provides a timely overview of this labour market issue which will be important for governments, stakeholders, and other stakeholders to shape future labour market policies.
Driven by social, economic and technological changes, labour markets are becoming more flexible in the European Union and EU Neighbourhood countries. This translates into growth in novel employment relationships, which differ from “traditional work” in terms of working conditions, content, and regulatory and legal ramifications.
This study provides an overview of impact investment and skills creation in innovation, covering the main features of impact investment, the historical development of the phenomenon, and how it can be linked to the skills creation process. The study examines the emergence of impact investing and explains its principles and defining features. It maps some existing initiatives at European and local levels, presents examples of good and innovative practices in investments with social impact, and explores what practices and instruments for impact investment in innovation skills have been and/or could be applied in the Western Balkans. While the discussion and awareness about impact investment in the region appear to be highly limited, there is a need for developing new (financial and capacity-building) instruments to promote and spur impact investment so as to ensure sustainability in the skills creation and retention process, ultimately resulting in reducing the brain drain and supporting the creation of high value-added jobs