Creating labour mobility opportunities, allowing refugees to move legally from first asylum countries to receiving countries based on their skills/qualifications and recipient labour market needs, have the potential to provide beneficiaries with access to a livelihood, ease migratory pressures for countries at the EU external borders and satisfy labour market demands in participating EU countries.
Cedefop’s pilot project showed ways to succeed if the political will to engage in relocation exists. Above all, the project revealed the importance of networks and the necessity to further engage employers in national migration and integration strategies.
This study examines the way in which institutional arrangements for the delivery of IVET have changed in response to shifts in skills demand.
Although these arrangements vary across countries, it is possible to identify common trends over time, such as institutional hybridisation, the blurring of boundaries between IVET and general education. Despite this development, IVET has been able to retain a distinct identity, which is attractive to learners and has the support of key labour market actors. This reflects IVET’s adaptability and resilience in the face of change.
Building on a Europe-wide survey of VET providers and in-depth national case studies, the study delivers a timely update of, and insight into, the continually changing IVET landscape. Results show increasing similarities in how countries configure their IVET systems. This is evident in the broadening of IVET curricula, the prominence given to the work-based learning pathway, as well as the growing importance attached to local and regional autonomy.
The study identifies ‘favourable’ or ‘ideal’ (from a theoretical point of view) governance structures and financing arrangements (normative model) that would support sustainable implementation of high-quality apprenticeship.
Against the backdrop of this model, current structures in these countries are assessed and areas that need action identified. Possible options as to how apprenticeship or similar schemes could be further developed in each country are presented.
Designed as action research in which relevant national stakeholders – government representatives, employers, employees and training providers – were actively involved in carrying out the assessment and discussing future policy options, the study aims to contribute to policy learning and encourage the national and international dialogue on apprenticeship.