Skills mismatch problems in the labour market have been widely recognized by both current literature and policymakers. Skills mismatch indicators inform policies to improve the matching between labour demand and labour supply, making labour markets more efficient and reducing the wage penalties due to over-education or other types of mismatches. The skills mismatch indicators have been measured, so far, only for a limited number of the European Training Foundation (ETF) partner countries and they are not always comparable. This report provides an update and an extension of the work which has already been done to measure skills mismatch in ETF partner countries. The analysis following the choice and the construction of skills mismatch indicators provides a timely overview of this labour market issue which will be important for governments, stakeholders, and other stakeholders to shape future labour market policies.
This study is a joint collaboration of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), International Labour Organization (ILO), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and Finn Church Aid (FCA) to identify good practices related to access to Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) programmes for refugees and internally displaced people (IDPs), as well as their host communities, and their transition to the labour market.
The study reviews TVET systems and programmes implemented by national ministries, private sector actors, development agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) across five countries - Ethiopia, Jordan, Kenya, Sudan and Uganda – prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has created additional challenges for the livelihoods and inclusion of forcibly displaced people around the world.
In March 2021, the International Labour Organization (ILO) Governing Body unanimously endorsed the Productivity Ecosystem for Decent Work (hereafter referred to as “Productivity Ecosystem”). The Productivity Ecosystem is an approach that works at the firm, sector and policy level to systematically identify key productivity bottlenecks faced by micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) and address them in an integrated and sustainable manner. The approach has been developed based on the ILO’s previous work and programmes to improve productivity and decent work for MSMEs.
This case study is part of a broader series that seeks to shed light on key drivers of inclusive productivity growth and to showcase how the ILO has helped strengthen those drivers. Concrete examples are presented of how the ILO facilitated or promoted change that led to positive impact on productivity and decent work, especially for MSMEs. The case study series zooms in on skills development as a key driver for a well-functioning productivity ecosystems for decent work. Specifically, the below case study of an ILO-led upgraded informal apprenticeship programme in Jordan’s car servicing and maintenance sector finds that such apprenticeship schemes impact the skills of young apprentices, thereby improving their employability and the productivity of participating MSMEs.
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