This document aims to contribute to better understanding of vocational education and training (VET) in the Netherlands, providing an insight into its main features and highlighting recent VET policy developments. VET in the Netherlands is comprehensive and flexible and has good labour market outcomes. The Dutch experience shows that an effective VET system requires regular adjustments to keep meeting labour market and society needs. Striking a good balance between the system’s accessibility, quality and efficiency is a constant challenge. In recent years, policies have focused on reducing early leaving from education and training and streamlining qualifications. Recent policies aim at increasing quality and efficiency by reducing programme duration and by strengthening performance-based funding. These and other measures benefit from a tradition of evidence-informed policy and practice.