This study was commissioned by Cedefop from the centre for European research in employment and human resources at Toulouse business school on behalf of the credit transfer technical working group. This group was set up by the European Commission in 2003 in the framework of the Copenhagen process on enhanced cooperation in vocational education and training. Cedefop supports this and other working groups with studies, advice, expertise and its communication tools.
The brief was to clarify concepts, investigate classifications and typologies applied in Member States and advise the working group on descriptors for learning outcomes. Finally, a prototype typology applicable for credit accumulation and transfer should be developed as a practical result. The study presented by the authors is an academic exercise which is useful but difficult to translate into policy action. It helped identify gaps in existing tools and instruments for describing learn.