Vocational education and training in Europe, 1995-2035
The aim of this synthesis report is to connect and synthesise the series of research papers on the changing role and nature of VET in Europe already published and to complement these with further analysis, modelling and literature to provide new insights. The report also
presents results of an online survey among VET stakeholders carried out in spring 2018.
The summary presented in this report shows that European VET varies between countries and is changing in various fundamental ways. It is becoming more diverse in its programmes and qualifications and also expanding into higher levels, challenging the perception of higher education as exclusively academically oriented.
In some countries, this reflects a step towards making lifelong learning a reality; in others, traditional VET is coming under pressure from declining youth cohorts and a growing preference for general education and training. Such negative developments can be seen as a forewarning of future challenges.