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Understanding the Dynamics of Labor Income Inequality in Latin America
Publication Date: 18 Nov 2016
Source: Other sources
Since the early 2000s, after a long period of wide and persistent gaps, Latin America has experienced a steady decline in income inequality. This paper presents evidence of a trend reversal in labor income inequality, which is considered the main factor behind such a decline in income inequality across the region. The analysis shows that, while labor income inequality increased during the 1990s, with heterogeneous experiences across countries, it fell in a synchronized way across countries beginning in the early 2000s. This systematic decline was supported by an expansion in real hourly earnings among the bottom of the wage distribution and, to a lesser extent, the middle part of the earnings distribution, thus reducing upper and lower tail inequality. This trend reversal is explained by a lower dispersion of earnings among workers with observable different attributes and by a much less extensive dispersion of residual labor inequality. Regarding the earnings differentials among workers with observable different attributes, the analysis concludes that the decline in labor inequality in Latin America has been closely associated with a reduction in the college/primary education premium and in the urban-rural earnings gap, coupled with a steady drop in the high school/primary education premium, which accelerated markedly since the 2000s, as well as a reduction in the experience premium across all age groups.
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Desigualdades persistentes: Mercado de trabajo, calificación y género
Publication Date: 25 Jan 2016
Source: International organizations
El Cuaderno sobre Desarrollo Humano que aquí se presenta contribuye al análisis y el debate sobre la relación entre educación y mercado de trabajo, haciendo foco en las desigualdades de género que se mantienen en el mercado de trabajo. Para ello el informe da cuenta de las brechas que se identifican en los sectores más calificados de la sociedad. La hipótesis que orienta el análisis se basa en la existencia de diversas expresiones de discriminación laboral entre varones y mujeres, manifiesta en la segregación horizontal y vertical para la población que cuenta con estudios terciarios.

El estudio se pregunta por la calificación terciaria femenina, su articulación con la inserción laboral de las mujeres y las inequidades de género en el mercado de trabajo. Asimismo, se interroga sobre los factores que contribuyen a explicar las diferencias salariales entre trabajadores y trabajadoras con educación terciaria y cómo afecta la segregación laboral de género a la brecha salarial.
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Uruguay: Public employment services in Latin America and the Caribbean
Publication Date: 16 Dec 2015
Source: ILO
Uruguay is a high-income country in South America with a total population of 3.4 million. An average annual growth rate of 5.2 per cent over the period 2006–14 has created the fiscal space necessary for broadening access to education, social protection and health-care services (World Bank, 2015). These improving conditions are also reflected in the labour market: for instance, there has been a steady increase in employment and labour participation rates, among women as well as men. Within that context, this note provides an overview of the main trends and innovations of the Public Employment Services in Uruguay.