An advanced EU accession candidate with structural labour market challenges
Since its independence in 2006, Montenegro heavily invested into the reform of Vocational Education and Training and is the first among the six Western Balkan countries to introduce a Dual TVET system in 2017/2018.

The COVID-19 pandemic hit the tourism-dependent economy particularly hard. GDP dropped by 15% in 2020 and reversed the positive labour market trends from previous years. The pandemic exacerbated the structural problems of the Montenegrin labour markets from before the pandemic, i.e. low employment and high inactivity, especially for youth, women, and the low skilled, as well as elevated levels of informal employment.

ILO support for Skills Development in Montenegro
Montenegro is a candidate country for EU membership. ILO technical assistance focuses therefore on supporting an EU-compatible skills development system. In 2019, ILO and ETF jointly conducted an evaluation of Dual TVET in Montenegro. The Recommendations were welcomed by the Ministry of Education and translated into different actions to improve the system, e.g. the training of in-company mentors. In 2021, upon the request of the Ministry of Education, ILO developed a proposal for a Student Graduate Tracking system that combines education statistics with tax data and labour market data. Such a system would allow to understand better the effectiveness and relevance of TVET and to adjust policy development and the further shaping of skills development in Montenegro, to achieve better labour market results.
Press release
Every TVET student counts!
Publication Date: 02 Nov 2021
Source: ILO

Every year, two thirds of secondary school students in Montenegro choose Vocational Education and Training (VET) to access pre-university schooling. However, the whereabouts of these students after graduation remains largely unknown - do they find a job in their vocation, register with the Employment Agency or continue with university education? To support policy makers in getting answers to these questions, the International Labour Organization (ILO) conducted a background study and developed a proposal for tracking graduates from VET education in Montenegro based on administrative data.

The research was presented at a workshop on October 22nd organized by ILO, with the participation of representatives of the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports, the National VET Agency, the Taxation Agency, the Employment Agency, the Montenegrin Statistical Office and the University of Montenegro. All participants provided valuable contributions to the discussions from the perspective of their portfolio and agreed on future steps for implementing a Graduate Tracking System.

The background study analyses European best practices and suggests a step-by-step model for introducing a Graduate Tracking System, including institutional roles and responsibilities. In spite of sporadic attempts to track students from VET and higher education with qualitative tracer studies, the response rates did not provide the results to support evidence-based policy making. The ILO study therefore suggests creating a comprehensive Graduate Tracking System that combines qualitative surveys with quantitative data on Education, Taxation and Employment, to get a fuller picture on VET graduates’ employment and education outcomes in the long run.    

The three most important workshop recommendations include: a) Establishing an inter-institutional Coordination Group and define roles and responsibilities; b) Conducting a pilot tracking of smaller cohorts of VET graduates in 2022 in two sectors (three-year students in the dual vs. the school-based environment and four-year students) by combining administrative and survey data; c) Designing a methodology for data collection and processing of VET graduates in the first half of 2022. The background study and the road map will be published in late 2021 and be freely accessible online.

Skills mismatch measurement in ETF partner countries
Publication Date: 11 Jun 2020
Source: TVET institutions
Matching skills supply and demand is a major challenge for many countries around the world. In 2017-18 the ETF carried out a project on skills mismatch measurement in seven countries – Egypt, Georgia, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, North Macedonia and Serbia – to better understand the nature and incidence of this complex phenomenon. Based on the findings of the country analyses, this report describes and interprets a series of indicators and the way they are interrelated, and provides information on the methodology and data sources used to measure skills mismatch.
Developing skills for employability with German partners: 8 success stories from the medical and geriatric care sector
Publication Date: 20 Apr 2016
Source: Other sources
Germany’s success in the healthcare sector is reinforced by its training expertise. 'Training – Made in Germany' offers the necessary know-how to meet the challenge in the field of vocational education and training. Germany has a long-standing tradition in this field and enjoys a high reputation for the demand-driven and practical orientation of its qualification programmes. The integration of professional, social and methodological competencies characterises the kind of knowledge German partners can provide. This document presents eight success stories of skill development in the health and geriatric care sector, realised in a joint effort by German and international partners.