Document
A routine transition? Causes and consequences of the changing content of jobs in Central and Eastern Europe
Publication Date: 13 Jul 2016
Source: Academic institutions, Other sources
This paper studies the shift from manual to cognitive work in 10 economies of Central and Eastern Europe. It highlights the growth in the non-routine cognitive component of jobs, but pay particular attention to the increase in routine cognitive tasks, a trend that is pronounced in the CEE economies but absent in the most advanced economies. It shows that workforce upgrading and structural change were the main factors behind the increase in all cognitive tasks, but that the growth in routine cognitive tasks is partly attributable to rising shares of routine-intensive occupations. It identifies two groups of workers whose jobs depend most on performing routine cognitive tasks: middle-skilled men in the manufacturing sectors and middle-skilled women in the service sectors, who jointly represent 33% of workers in CEE. It finds that robust employment and wage growth among routine cognitive workers has so far prevented job polarisation in CEE. However, the relative prices of routine cognitive tasks are already higher than those of other tasks. If the prices of routine cognitive tasks rise further while technological progress continues, routine intensive employment may gradually decline. It concludes with policy implications of the findings.
Document
Learning from catalysts of rural transformation
Publication Date: 16 May 2016
Source: ILO
This publication reviews 8 cases of 'Catalyst' of rural transformation from different countries. It extracts lessons that remind us of the economic and development potential of rural areas, and most important, the central role of rural men and women, young people, indigenous populations and other groups to unleash that potential.
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Governance and financing of apprenticeships
Publication Date: 04 Apr 2016
Source: Other sources
This report analyses VET governance structures and financing arrangements in Spain, Italy, Latvia, Portugal and Sweden in view of developing and expanding apprenticeship.

The study identifies ‘favourable’ or ‘ideal’ (from a theoretical point of view) governance structures and financing arrangements (normative model) that would support sustainable implementation of high-quality apprenticeship.

Against the backdrop of this model, current structures in these countries are assessed and areas that need action identified. Possible options as to how apprenticeship or similar schemes could be further developed in each country are presented.

Designed as action research in which relevant national stakeholders – government representatives, employers, employees and training providers – were actively involved in carrying out the assessment and discussing future policy options, the study aims to contribute to policy learning and encourage the national and international dialogue on apprenticeship.