This report presents an overview of policies and actions in support of lifelong learning in the ETF’s partner countries in South Eastern Europe and Turkey, Central Asia, the Eastern Partnership region, and the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. Our analysis explores the extent to which the creation of lifelong learning opportunities is a priority in the reform agenda of these countries in the field of education and training, and the ways in which they are influencing the formation of that agenda. The report also discusses the efforts of authorities and stakeholders in implementing their reform plans in the wake of changing circumstances before and during the Covid-19 pandemic, and identifies policy gaps and lessons to be learned before providing a handful of policy recommendations in a cross-country perspective.
Building the Right Skills for Human Capital summarizes the findings from the 2019 skills survey for the adult Kyrgyz population. The skills measures used in the survey focused on literacy, numeracy, and problem solving in technology rich environments (PSTRE) and followed the same questions and approach as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Programme for the International Assessment of Adult (PIAAC) surveys. Most jobs in the Kyrgyz Republic require regular use of reading, writing, numeracy, and information and communications technology (ICT) skills, and higher-skilled groups of people earn higher wages, suggesting that the labor market rewards higher skills. However, skills levels among the workforce are consistently low in absolute terms among varying sociodemographic groups and relative to countries that implemented PIAAC surveys. Results are not improving across cohorts, except for PSTRE. There is evidence that a substantial share of people is overschooled but underskilled. The lack of quality of education is an important driver for low skills performance. The report finds that higher levels of education are associated with higher skills levels, but even among the most educated, a large share has low skills scores, which helps explain why we find that a large share can be overeducated but underskilled for the jobs they occupy. Skill levels of secondary school teachers were also assessed. Teachers outperform the general population in both literacy and numeracy but underperform compared to professionals. Overall, one-third of teachers still have low proficiency in literacy and numeracy. With regards to ICT skills, the results suggest that nearly all secondary school teachers are currently not well equipped to impart ICT skills to their students. The book concludes with a series of policy recommendations at different levels of education, from early childhood education through life-long learning, including providing upskilling opportunities for those teachers with specific skill deficiencies.
The Project aimed to assist developing and middle-income countries to assess their skills development needs and support the capacity development of national stakeholders to critically analyze, design, update and adapt national and sectoral skills development systems to find country-specific solutions to improve employability and promote decent employment opportunities for all.