Document
Skills for green jobs: 2018 update
Publication Date: 02 May 2019
Source: Other sources
This report provides an update on the state of play regarding ‘green skills’ and ‘green jobs’ in six EU countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, Estonia, France and the UK). It examines the major changes in green jobs and employment since 2010, and analyses the regulations and policies supporting green skills and employment, including the surrounding institutional set-up and the role played by social partners. It also highlights good practices, including green skill anticipation mechanisms, relevant vocational education and training and higher education, active labour market policies and retraining measures, and the role of the private sector.
Document
Vocational Education and Training in Estonia
Publication Date: 09 Apr 2019
Source: International organizations
This review assesses the vocational education and training (VET) in Estonia and provides policy recommendations. Estonia does very well in terms of student achievement on PISA, and the results from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) are also excellent. Unemployment levels are low. But despite recent reforms, VET remains relatively low status compared to general education, dropout rates are too high for comfort, and apprenticeships, despite recent efforts, fail to attract many young people. Suggested approaches to improve VET in Estonia include the expansion of work-based learning within all VET programmes and measures to increase the number of apprentices.
Document
A routine transition? Causes and consequences of the changing content of jobs in Central and Eastern Europe
Publication Date: 13 Jul 2016
Source: Academic institutions, Other sources
This paper studies the shift from manual to cognitive work in 10 economies of Central and Eastern Europe. It highlights the growth in the non-routine cognitive component of jobs, but pay particular attention to the increase in routine cognitive tasks, a trend that is pronounced in the CEE economies but absent in the most advanced economies. It shows that workforce upgrading and structural change were the main factors behind the increase in all cognitive tasks, but that the growth in routine cognitive tasks is partly attributable to rising shares of routine-intensive occupations. It identifies two groups of workers whose jobs depend most on performing routine cognitive tasks: middle-skilled men in the manufacturing sectors and middle-skilled women in the service sectors, who jointly represent 33% of workers in CEE. It finds that robust employment and wage growth among routine cognitive workers has so far prevented job polarisation in CEE. However, the relative prices of routine cognitive tasks are already higher than those of other tasks. If the prices of routine cognitive tasks rise further while technological progress continues, routine intensive employment may gradually decline. It concludes with policy implications of the findings.
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Nordic skills policies
Publication Date: 08 Apr 2014
Source: International organizations
This OECD Skills Strategy spotlight sets what previous skills policies in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Norway and Sweden have delivered. This document is the fruit of a seminar on “OECD Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC): a foundation for reform?” that was held in October 2012 and brought together experts from governments and academia from over 10 countries.