Skills mismatch problems in the labour market have been widely recognized by both current literature and policymakers. Skills mismatch indicators inform policies to improve the matching between labour demand and labour supply, making labour markets more efficient and reducing the wage penalties due to over-education or other types of mismatches. The skills mismatch indicators have been measured, so far, only for a limited number of the European Training Foundation (ETF) partner countries and they are not always comparable. This report provides an update and an extension of the work which has already been done to measure skills mismatch in ETF partner countries. The analysis following the choice and the construction of skills mismatch indicators provides a timely overview of this labour market issue which will be important for governments, stakeholders, and other stakeholders to shape future labour market policies.
Providing an overview of youth labour markets in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine, and a description of the policy frameworks and measures in place to support youth transition to work, this report identifies the main challenges that young people face during their transition from education to work and priority areas for future action by governments to address these challenges.
The report aims to trigger a wider reflection on policy implications arising from the new trends in online labour and skills demand and changes in work organisation. The assessment considers possible measures to mitigate challenges and foster opportunities (digital access), protect workers (labour legislation, social security and social dialogue) and enhance skills formation, development and utilisation (education and training provision, including career guidance and skills recognition). The analysis focuses on both country-specific and common regional elements, which could direct national and regional actions, including those supported by the European Union.
Dynamic and growth-oriented SMEs integrated into global value chains are key to boosting productivity, innovation and competitiveness. Yet SMEs everywhere continue to be constrained in their access to finance, skills’ level, innovative capacity, access to business support services and opportunities for internationalisation.
The SME Policy Index is a benchmarking tool designed for emerging economies to assess SME policy frameworks and monitor progress in policy implementation over time.